Kim Jong Un inspects an EMP-enhanced nuclear bomb.
This bomb has a 122 point implosion system based on a dodecahedron (12 sides). Each side in a dodecahedron is a pentagon. Within each pentagon is a circle surrounded by 5 circles. Surrounding these 6 circles is half a circle at each edge and one third of a circle at each corner. So each pentagon has [6 + 5/2 + 5/3] circles. The entire bomb has (12 x [6 + 5/2 + 5/3]) = 122 circles. The more explosive lenses you have, the more efficient the compression, and the smaller the thickness of your lenses. This means that the bomb is smaller, and you can use less fissile material. Fat Man (Nagasaki) had a 32 point implosion system, a soccer ball, which has 12 pentagons, 20 hexagons, and 60 vertices(corners). Subsequent designs improved on this by using a 92 point implosion system. A 92 sided ball is created by taking a soccer ball and putting hexagons centered at each of the 60 vertices; 32+60=92. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea is, as far as I know, the only country to have used more than 92 lenses in a bomb, 122 in this case. Translation: This is a good bomb. Estimates on how many bombs they can produce should focus on the high end since they need less fissile material for a bomb. Soon after developing the 92 point implosion system the US devoloped two point linear implosion and two point hollow pit implosion, reducing the size and complexity of bombs. This should be the next step for the DPRK if they haven't already achieved it. Korea first began work on a nuclear bomb in 1989. A. Q. Khan, the Pakistani expert on uranium enrichment, visited Korea several times in the early 1990s. He claimed that Korea's nuclear program was already advanced at this stage. The US presented Korea with evidence of their secret uranium enrichment program in 2002. Korea began extracting plutonium from their reactor for nuclear bombs in the early 1990s. Korean Weapon's of Mass Destruction I believe Korea could have more than 100 nuclear warheads. Korea is the only country conducting nuclear tests. The United States last conducted a nuclear test in 1992. The only ICBM used by the United States, the LGM-30G Minuteman 3, was produced in 1970 with 1960's technology, although the guidance systems and solid rocket fuel has been upgraded. Up until June, 2017, these missiles were launched with software contained on the old, large, 8-inch floppy discs. Minuteman III receives upgrade. Korea's missiles and nuclear warheads are designed with state of the art materials and microelectronic components.
This is a Goldberg Polyhedron with T=12. The number of vertices is 20T. The number of edges is 30T. The number of faces is 10T+2. The number of faces by type is 12 pentagons and 10(T-1) hexagons. So it has 240 vertices, 360 edges, and 122 faces with 12 being pentagons and 110 being hexagons. The picture on the Wikipedia page for this Goldberg Polyhedron, which is pictured below, is not good. It looks like there are less faces than there actually are. They should put up a more accurate picture. This is a class II polyedron with T =12. The class three polyedron has 132 sides, only ten more (T=13), but looks more accurate. Because you will always see less than half of a sphere no matter the distance from the sphere, counting the number of polygons on a spherical polyhedron is not simple. You cannot simply count what you see and multiply by two. The farther away the viewer is from the sphere, the more area of the hemisphere you can see. You would have to be infinitely far away from a sphere to see an entire hemisphere at which point the sphere would appear to have a size of zero, meaning you can no longer see it.
This is a 132 sided polyhedron, only ten more faces, but looks more accurate. The pentagons are shifted out of place from the 122 sided polyhedron.
This image was intentionally blurred by the DPRK. The warhead is shaped like that because it stabilizes itself just like a badminton birdie. It probably has a spin mechanism as well.
As you can see from the first graphic, 14.1 MeV neutrons produced by deuterium-tritium fusion can fission U-238. You can also see from the blue band on the right that fission produces neutrons that are high energy fast neutrons but only energetic enough to fission U-238 with a small probability, cross section. U-238, therefor, cannot sustain a fission chain reaction. The mean free path of neutrons in plutonium is greater than the radius of the plutonium core. That means the fast neutrons produced by the deuterium-tritium boosting at the center more often than not don't encounter a nucleus until they have traveled into the U-238 tamper that surrounds the core in a normal non EMP-enhanced bomb. There they can fission U-238. So some of the fast neutrons from the DT boosting fission plutonium directly and some fission U-238 in the tamper surrounding the core, producing more neutrons. You can see from the second graphic that fissioning U-238 from an incident 14.1 MeV neutron from DT fusion produces 4 neutrons on average. This applies to U-235 as well. Plutonium seems to produce closer to 4.5 neutrons from a 14.1 MeV incident neutron. The fission of Pu-239 from fission produced neutrons produces on average 2.9 neutrons. The fission of U-235 from fission produced neutrons produces on average 2.5 neutrons. The presence of the beryllium reflector surrounding the U-238 tamper reflects neutrons back toward the core, enhancing the chain reaction. Beryllium is a good reflector because it tends not to react with neutrons, and the space between its nuclei is small because its electron radius is small since it only has 4 protons.
One possible design that nobody ever talks about that Korea could have is the sloika (Слойка), which was the fourth nuclear bomb the Soviet Union tested, RDS-6s. The fission core is surrounded by alternating layers of deuterium-tritium gas and uranium 238. Deuterium-tritium fusion occurs in the sandwiched layers, and the fast neutrons that this produces fissions some of the uranium 238. Joe 4, as the bomb was called in the West, had a fusion percentage of 15 to 20% resulting in a 400 kiloton yield mostly from fast fission of uranium 238. So the fusion yield is 1/5 of 400 kt which is 80 kt. If the fissile core yield is 20 kt, that means 300 kt or 75% of the yield is from the fissioning of the normally nonfissile U-238, depleted uranium. This design was improved by replacing the deuterium-tritium gas in the layers with lithium deuteride, a solid, in the RDS-27 test. The neutron environment from the fissioning core produces tritium from the lithium. This bomb had a yield of 250 kilotons. The Sloika has been denigrated a lot since it is not considered a true hydrogen bomb and the fusion yield is smaller and can't be scaled up. I like this design. It is a lot simpler than the Teller-Ulam configuration, and 250 kilotons is a large yield. Why wouldn't Korea build this bomb? You are turning a 20 kiloton bomb into a 250 kiloton bomb, and no additional fissile material is necessary; just lithium deuteride and depleted uranium.
I don't understand why Korea hasn't conducted an atmospheric nuclear test. They could learn valuable information from doing so, and it would send a message. They are going to be sanctioned anyway. A multimegaton test may require them to conduct it in the atmosphere or underwater.
Kim Jong Un inspects a Korean style hydrogen bomb being loaded into an ICBM. The primary in a hydrogen bomb has the sole purpose of detonating the secondary. These usually don't have a uranium tamper to enhance the yield of the primary, just a beryllium reflector. That is why the primary is smaller than a fission bomb. The primary probably looks like a smaller version of the atomic bomb. It is the larger round section. When they tested this bomb it produced an earthquake of 6.3 magnitude, which the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) said produced the largest ever seismic signal for a nuclear test. The blast may have been too large for an underground test because eight minutes later a 4.1 magnitude event was detected which is believed to be a burst fracture of the surrounding rock; the seismic signal did not correlate with a nuclear test, earthquake, crater or tunnel collapse, or landslide. A 6.3 earthquake corresponds to a 2.8 megaton yield. A 6.0 earthquake corresponds to a 1 megaton yield. A 4.0 earthquake corresponds to a 1 kiloton yield. The thermonuclear warhead is designed to fit in a conical MIRV pictured in the diagram in the background. It looks like they can only fit one hydrogen bomb MIRV in the shroud of the Hwasong-14, with some space left over, which means more nuke and missile tests. The silvery white metal that encases the two stages is the depleted uranium radiation case. It reflects x-rays that the material(styrofoam, ethane gas, etc.) in the radiation channel converts from the gamma rays produced by the primary nuclear explosion. It also produces x-rays itself from the bremsstrahlung effect. The resulting plasma and x-rays ablate(vaporize) the outer surface of the secondary, resulting in inward thrust(compression) and a super-heated, super-compressed sandwich of fission and fusion fuel. This results in a deuterium-tritium thermonuclear burn sandwiched inside the fissioning secondary fission fuel. Fast neutrons produced from the fusion burn also fission some of the atoms in the depleted uranium case, increasing the yield. The cylinder behind the bomb contains the power supply, firing circuits, and other electronics and is encased in uranium, hardening it against EMP, gammas, and neutrons from antimissiles and nearby nuclear explosions. The device on top of the cylinder may be an inertial or star navigation device or electronic countermeasures. Korea releases pictures of their weapons to prove to the American government that their weapons are real. Many people believe the pictures Korea releases are fakes because they have never seen the real thing since the American government classifies images of nuclear bombs. These pictures are also helping other nations that may want to develop thermonuclear weapons.
Earthquake magnitudes are related to nuclear yields according to the equation: , where mTNT is the yield equivalent in mega metric tons of TNT.
From the UCLA website:
The Richter Earthquake Magnitude Scale, which was perfected by Charles Richter of Cal Tech in 1935, has always been misleading for people who are not used to thinking logarithmically. In this case, it's log-10: every whole position is 10 times greater than the one before. Therefore, if 4.0 is taken to be the equivalent of 10 units, 5.0 is 100.
But according to a new way of measuring earthquakes, based on the seismic "moment of force," translated to the equivalent energy released by an explosion of TNT, the Richter Scale is converted from a log-10 to a 2/3 log-10 scale. In this scale, every positional increase, e.g. Richter 4.0 to 5.0, goes up by a factor of 31.62, which we can round to 32. Thus, R 2.0 corresponds to the detonation of 1 ton of TNT, R 3.0 = 32t, R 4.0 = 1000t, R 5.0 = 32,000t, 6.0 = 1,000,000t, 7.0 = 32,000,000t, and so on. This "Moment Magnitude" is represented by Mw. The "w", introduced by Hiroo Kanamori in 1977, presumably stands for "work"; it refers to "elastic strain energy." The formula used here is: Tonnage = 10(1.5R-3).
The Kelly Kiloton Index (KKI), formulated in 2006 by H. A. Kelly of UCLA, in consultation with Geoffrey Mess of the UCLA Math Department, aims at giving a "realistic" picture of earthquake energy. It uses the kiloton (= 1000 metric tons = 2,200,000 lbs) as the basic unit. Here is the KKI range for Richter 6.0 to 6.9 and for 7.0 to 7.9:
The black thing bolted to the bomb with three bolts is the neutron gun. Their original atom bomb has a three bolt attachment connected to it as well and at the same angle.
"Pyongyang, September 3 (KCNA) -- The Nuclear Weapons Institute of the DPRK gave the following statement in connection with the perfect success in the test of a hydrogen bomb for ICBM: Scientists in the nuclear field of the DPRK successfully carried out a test of H-bomb for ICBM in the northern nuclear test ground of the DPRK at 12:00 on September 3, true to the Workers' Party of Korea's plan for building a strategic nuclear force.
The H-bomb test was carried out to examine and confirm the accuracy and credibility of the power control technology and internal structural design newly introduced into manufacturing H-bomb to be placed at the payload of the ICBM.
The result of the experimental measurements showed that the power specifications of nuclear warhead including total explosion power and fission to fusion power rate and all other physical specifications reflecting the qualitative level of two-stage thermo-nuclear weapon fully complied with design figures.
It was also confirmed that even though the recent test was carried out with the bomb of unprecedentedly big power, there were neither emission through ground surface nor leakage of radioactive materials nor did it have any adverse impact on the surrounding ecological environment.
The test re-confirmed the precision of the compression technology of the first system of the H-bomb and the fission chain reaction start control technology and proved once again that the nuclear material utility rate in the first system and the second system reached the levels reflected in the design.
Symmetrical compression of nuclear charge, its fission detonation and high-temperature nuclear fusion ignition, and the ensuing rapidly boosting fission-fusion reactions, which are key technologies for enhancing the nuclear fusion power of the second-system of the H-bomb, were confirmed to have been realized on a high level.
This helped prove that the directional combination structure and multi-layer radiation explosion-proof structural design of the first system and the second system used for the manufacture of the H-bomb were very accurate and the light thermal radiation-resisting materials and neutron-resisting materials were rationally selected.
The test helped draw the conclusion that the Korean-style analytic method and calculation programs for the complicated physical processes occurring in the first and second systems were put on the high level and that the engineering structure of the H-bomb as a nuclear warhead designed on the Juche basis including the structure of the nuclear charge of the second system was creditable.
The test once again confirmed the reliability of the concentration-type nuke detonation control system fully verified through a nuclear warhead detonation test and test-launches of various ballistic rockets.
The perfect success in the test of the H-bomb for ICBM clearly proved that the Juche-based nukes of the DPRK have been put on a highly precise basis, the creditability of the operation of the nuclear warhead is fully guaranteed and the design and production technology of nuclear weapons of the DPRK has been put on a high level to adjust its destructive power in consideration of the targets and purposes.
It also marked a very significant occasion in attaining the final goal of completing the state nuclear force.
The Central Committee of the WPK extended warm congratulations to the scientists and technicians in the nuclear field in the northern nuclear test ground on their successful H-bomb test for ICBM."
Korea's hydrogen bomb is very similar in design to the W-87. The primary and secondary are probably both spherical.
The Hwasong-14 《화성-14》 ICBM is based on the liquid fueled "medium long range missile", the Hwasong-12. "Hwasong" is Korean for "Mars". The first stage is a wider version of the Hwasong 12's single stage with a new, more powerful engine and has four verniers (steering engines) as well. The second stage is probably solid fueled and derived from the Pukguksong-2. If this is the case, they wouldn't have to worry about fueling four tanks with liquids, just two. The interstage between the first and second stages has 8 small separation rockets.
The second stage solid fuel burn produces white vapor.
The shroud for the Hwasong-14 looks identical to the shroud of the US Minuteman-3 ICBM, which holds 3 MIRVs (Multiple Independently targetable Re-entry Vehicles). Before 2005 most of the warheads in the MIRVs of the Minuteman-3 were the W-78 with some still containing the lighter W-62. Beginning in 2005 the W-78 began to be replaced by the safer W-87. The Minuteman-3 was produced in 1970. So the DPRK has had 47 years to obtain data on the Minuteman-3 through espionage.
Canisters are used to launch solid fueled missiles. You cannot fuel a liquid fueled missile if it is in a canister. The canister protects the launch vehicle from the exhaust plume. Since they have canisters for ICBM's, they must have an all solid fueled ICBM in development. Solid fueled missiles can stay inside the canister indefinitely and be driven around at any time. Vehicles that carry liquid fueled missiles have protective plating over their wheels. This practice was put into place after a missile test damaged a launch vehicle.
DPRK Hell March 2017
DPRK Military Parade 2017
The DPRK tested a heat shield for a nuclear warhead re-entry vehicle. They put it under the exhaust of a rocket firing, producing temperatures much greater than ballistic re-entry.
The Hwasong-13 《화성-13》 three stage ICBM also appears to be a combination liquid and solid fueled missile. The first stage is liquid fueled and has two engines and four verniers. The second stage is liquid fueled with a single engine. The third stage is solid fueled.
Here is the Hwasong-13, second version. The first stage appears identical to that used in the first version. The second stage is a little longer and tapered. I believe this missile has a biological warhead for dispersing either anthrax, aerosolized plague, or aerosolized smallpox, or a combination of biological agents. The warhead has a ring of nozzles for delivery of the agents. The blunt tip of the warhead and the fat rounded fins slow down the warhead on reentry, allowing precise delivery of the agents. The fins contain rockets that separate the warhead. Such a large warhead probably includes countermeasures and refrigeration if needed. The missile may be stored in refrigerated warehouses. The warhead appears to have ports for coolants. The DPRK has several types of biological agents. They would have to develop specialized warheads to deliver them. I don't know the range of this missile. It's warhead should have substantially less mass than a nuclear warhead, meaning the missile can travel farther, reaching the continental US, which is why it only has two stages.
A 1 kilogram anthrax warhead will kill more people than a 1 kiloton nuclear blast.
A small portion of the stockpile.
The Hwasong-12 《화성-12》 intermediate range missile is a single stage liquid fueled missile with one main engine and four steering engines. The four verniers provide additional thrust making it what the Koreans call a "medium long range missile". The missile body has small retrorockets placed before the warhead used in separation.
Korea also has a mobile intermediate range nuclear missile, Hwasong-10 《화성-10》, Musudan (무스단) by the Pentagon, for use on the Korean peninsula and the western Pacific region: Japan, Guam, etc. The Pentagon sometimes names DPRK missiles after the locations where they are first spotted. Other times they use the "Republic of Korea"'s convention, KN-#, where KN stands for Korean North. The Hwasong-10 has a longer range than the Ro Dong which can hit all of the ROK and Japan. The Musudan is derived from the Soviet SLBM (Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile), R-27 Zib(Зыбь), meaning "swell" as in ocean swell. It uses a hypergolic mixture of UDMH(unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine) and N2O4(nitrogen tetroxide). The two chemicals spontaneously combust when mixed together. The Musudan is a longer version of the R-27, meaning longer range. It only has two steering engines. Making it longer caused it to become unstable leading to failures. They increased the stability by adding grid fins. It is possible that the Musudan is actually a submarine launched missile that is being tested on land or has dual use as a submarine and land based missile. The DPRK has more than 70 submarines of various types. If they wanted to hit the east coast of the United States with the submarine-launched Pukguksong they would have to get their submarines into the Atlantic off the east coast of the United States. With submarine-launched Musudans they wouldn't have to leave the Pacific. They could park their submarines off the southern tip of Mexico or northern Central America.
Korea has a two stage, solid fueled medium range nuclear missile, the Pukguksong-2 《북극성-2》. "Pukguksong" is Korean for "Polaris", the North Star. Polaris was a two stage, solid fueled, American SLBM that looked very similar to the Pukguksong. The Polaris A3T missile had a 3-MIRV warhead. The Pukguksong-2 is a wider, land based version of their solid fueled SLBM, the Pukguksong. Since it is solid fueled, its preparation for launch time is very short. Plus, it has a tracked TEL (Transporter Erector Launcher), which the Koreans referred to as "caterpillar". The caterpillar should be able to travel over rugged terrain and hide from spy satellites. This missile tested maneuvers to defeat a missile defense system. You can see it change direction after the second stage burns out in the video below.
Pukguksong-2 truck canister?
United States Polaris A3
Second stage firing
Warhead changing direction
Here is the two stage, solid fueled, submarine launched ballistic missile, the Pukguksong-1 《북극성-1》. Notice that the tip of the Pukguksong is identical to the tested heat shield. The DPRK launched the Pukguksong from their Gorae (also called Sinpo) class submarine which has one or two launch tubes. They bought 10 Golf class submarines "for scrap" from Russia in 1993. These have three launch tubes each. If the DPRK gets all the Golf submarines and the Sinpo submarine in working order, they can launch 31 or 32 nuclear missiles from these submarines. Of course, they may have or plan to have more Sinpo class submarines. Why would they have only one submarine of a specific type? If they indeed have 10 Golf class submarines and possibly more Sinpos that would put them at over 80 submarines, probably making them the country with the most submarines.
United States Polaris A2
Notice the wound composite filaments in this close-up. This material has a higher strength to weight ratio than aluminum.
Look. It's the Kwangmyongsong-3 Unit 2 《광명성―3》호 2호기 satellite. What a strange configuration of solar panels.
The DPRK may have an EMP nuclear device in orbit. Kwangmyongsong-3.2 《광명성―3》호 2호기 and Kwangmyongsong-4 《광명성-4》 are in polar orbits that bring each of them over the United States twice a day. Kwangmyonsong means "lodestar", a star that is used to guide the course of a ship. These satellites are at the perfect altitude for an EMP covering the continental US, 300 miles. An EMP does not require a hydrogen bomb level yield. In fact, two stage hydrogen bombs are inefficient at creating EMPs because the fission primary can pre-ionize the atmosphere and the prompt gamma emission is much less than 1% of yield; Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse. Small pure fission weapons with thin cases are far more efficient at causing EMP than most megaton bombs. From the wikipedia article: "The total prompt gamma ray energy in a fission explosion is 3.5% of the yield, but in a 10 kiloton detonation the triggering explosive around the bomb core absorbs about 85% of the prompt gamma rays, so the output is only about 0.5% of the yield." The prompt gamma output for hydrogen bombs is much less than 0.5%. The fission bomb that Korea released images of has 122 lenses, meaning the lenses are thinner than those in the bombs tested by the US. Also, the bomb doesn't even have a case. You can see the geometry of the lenses and count them. That means the exploded lenses probably absorb less than 85% of the prompt gamma rays, and the prompt gamma output is probably much higher than 0.5% of yield. If you are testing an EMP bomb, you may only be able to measure the gamma ray flux at a considerable distance, meaning you would test it in a large void, cavern. This decouples the energy, resulting in a smaller earthquake magnitude than you would expect for the yield. Kwangmyongsong-4 has the same heighth as Kwangmyongsong-3.2, but it is wider and more cube shaped. Since Kwangmyongsong 3.2 was Korea's first successful satellite launch and Kwangmyongsong-4 is wider, it is more likely that only Kwangmyongsong-4 contains an EMP weapon. Kwangmyongsong-4 was launched one month after Korea conducted a nuclear test in January of 2016 which they claimed was a hydrogen bomb test. This produced an earthquake of magnitude 5.1 which corresponds to a 45 kiloton yield. This was three years after their third nuclear test which also produced a magnitude 5.1 earthquake. It seems the fourth nuclear test was of a revised design of the device tested in 2013. Was this redesign necessary so they could fit it inside the satellite?
You can track the Kwangmyongsong-3.2 satellite here.
You can track the Kwangmyongsong-4 satellite here.
Both of these satellites orbit at 300 miles altitude.
Here is a screen capture from N2YO.com.
An EMP nuke is probably a fission only weapon, except for the fusion boosting at the center. Hydrogen bombs are not good for EMP weapons because the tritium-deuterium fusion reaction only produces a high energy 16.75 MeV gamma ray in 0.000033% of reactions. Almost all of the reactions result in 14.1 MeV neutrons and 3.5 MeV helium nuclei. Any gamma produced from these particles are not prompt. A nuke detonated in outer space doesn't have matter to couple the energy. The average gamma emitted from plutonium-239 fission has an energy of 7.8 MeV. The average gamma emitted from uranium-235 fission has an energy of 7 MeV. An EMP nuke should have more power with increased amount of fissioning material. You would want to reduce the amount of material that could absorb gamma rays. So you would want a small mass explosive lense system and a small outer case or no case at all. If you didn't have a case on your EMP nuke you could see the geometry and count the lenses. You would have to glue onto the lens system a plate with an attached stand that has the neutron gun bolted to it.
The Kwangmyongsong-4 satellite was launched atop the Kwangmyongsong《광명성》("lodestar" or "bright star") space launch vehicle on February 7, 2016. It is in a polar orbit at approximately 300 miles altitude. The Kwangmyongsong space launch vehicle is either identical to the Unha-3 space launch vehicle or slightly upgraded. The Unha-3 space launch vehicle is a three stage rocket. The first stage has four clustered Rodong engines with four verniers. The second stage has a single Rodong engine. The third stage is solid fueled. There is no question about the intercontinental range of this rocket as it has put a 200 kilogram satellite into orbit. There is no reason the DPRK can't have an arsenal of these rockets armed with nuclear warheads in hidden underground silos. The DPRK's missile research partner, Iran, has shown pictures of their underground missile storage facilities with ready to launch missiles in the erect position. Korea continues to develop their space program, (National Aerospace Development Administration, NADA), with a larger space launch vehicle in development.
The Kwangmyongsong-3 Unit 2 satellite was launched atop the Unha-3 《은하-3》, "Galaxy-3", space launch vehicle on December 11, 2012. It is in a polar orbit at approximately 300 miles altitude.
The Kwangmyongsong-3 satellite was launched atop the Unha-3 《은하-3》, "Galaxy-3", space launch vehicle on April 13, 2012. The vehicle disintegrated during flight along with the satellite.
The Kwangmyongsong-2 satellite was launched atop the Unha-2 《은하-2》, "Galaxy-2", space launch vehicle on April 5, 2009 according to the DPRK. The US claims this satellite failed to achieve orbit.
The Kwangmyongsong-1 satellite was launched atop the three-stage Paektusan-1 (Taepodong-1) space launch vehicle according to the DPRK. The US claims this satellite failed to reach orbit. Information about the Paektusan-1 is all guess-work. I've seen claims that the first stage is four clustered rodong engines, one rodong engine with four verniers, and two rodong engines. I think it is probably two rodong engines with steering vanes. The second stage probably has one Rodong engine. The third stage is solid fueled and spin stabilized before releasing the satellite.
Korea reported the success of the satellite launch as follows:
"Our scientists and technicians have succeeded in launching the first artificial satellite aboard a multi-stage rocket into orbit. The rocket was launched in the direction of 86 degrees at a launching station in Musudan-ri (40.8 deg N, 129.7 deg E) at 12:07 August 31, 1998 and correctly put the satellite into orbit at 12 hours 11 minutes 53 seconds in four minutes 53 seconds."
"The rocket is of three stages. The first stage was separated from the rocket 95 seconds after the launch and fell on the open waters of the East Sea of Korea 253 km off the launching station, that is 40 degrees 51 minutes north latitude 139 degrees 40 minutes east longitude. The second stage opened the capsule in 144 seconds, separated itself from the rocket in 266 seconds and fell on the open waters of the Pacific 1,646 km off from the launching station, that is 40 degrees 13 minutes north latitude 149 degrees 07 minutes east longitude. The third stage put the satellite into orbit 27 seconds after the separation of the second stage."
"The satellite is running along the oval orbit 218.8 km in the nearest distance from the earth and 6,978.2 km in the farthest distance. Its period is 165 minutes 6 seconds. The satellite is equipped with necessary sounding instruments. The satellite is now transmitting the melody of the revolutionary hymns in 27 MHz."
The DPRK now has a medium range antiship ballistic missile, the KN-17, developed from the Scud. The fins near the tip allow for greater maneuverability and accuracy. It was announced that the first test of this missile had a drift of 7 meters. That's 7 meters from the point it was designed to impact. That is very good accuracy. The missile is 11 meters in length. If the target had been an aircraft carrier, that would have been a direct hit.
Korea also has an antiship cruise missile that can be launched from ship or mobile tracked TEL.
The Hwasong-7 《화성-7》, Rodong medium range missile
The medium range Scud ER (Extended Range) is a longer version of the Scud missile with a longer range. These are nuclear capable. Korea launched a volley of four Scud ER's near Japan in March of 2017. Japan did not attempt to shoot down these missiles. An intercept attempt of these warheads would have been visible in the video. It would have failed and caused huge embarrassment and a media frenzy because Korea would have shown this to the world. They wanted to do the same with a missile volley near Guam with four Hwasong 12's surrounding the island. They decided against it probably because it might have been interpreted as an attack.
The highly accurate, nuclear capable Toksa short range solid fueled missile is the Soviet OTR-21 Tochka(точка). Is this how Korea learned to produce solid fuel for their Pukguksong 1 and 2?
Korea also has a domestically produced version of the S-300 air defense system.
Korea has a mobile version of the SA-3 surface to air missile system.
The DPRK has the world's longest range MLRS( Multiple Launch Rocket System ). The indigenously produced KN-09 300mm MLRS consists of two pods containing 4 rockets each. The rockets have a range of 250km, covering 75% of the ROK, and putting Daejeon(Taejon) in range, where the joint US-ROK military headquarters of the army, navy, and air force is located. The rockets have two control fins on their heads, a guidance characteristic of the American M31 GMLRS that has four small wings attached to the head of the rocket for accuracy. These rockets are also equipped with imagery-guidance and GPS systems. The rocket pods can be changed out with preloaded ones, increasing the firing rate.
The Koksan (곡산) is a 170 mm self-propelled gun indigenously designed and produced by Korea.
Maximum firing range: 60 km (with RAP round)
Effective firing range: 40 km (standard munition), 60 km (booster munition)
Operational range: 300 km
Rate of fire: 1-2 rounds per 5 minutes
Type-63 and PT-76 are amphibious.
Nuke your own city with the NUKEMAP! Make sure to use advanced settings.
Screen shot of the nuke map
Click on the map for a zoomable map of the predicted nuclear strike zones, fallout patterns, and power plant and FEMA locations.
The safest location in a building is the one which puts the most material between you and the atmosphere outside that is emitting gamma rays.
One should also take iodine pills if nuclear war has started. The iodine will saturate your thyroid so that it will not uptake radioactive iodine-131, which is a radioactive isotope of iodine produced as a fission byproduct of nuclear explosions. Radioactive iodine-131 in your thyroid causes thyroid cancer. You may also want to take calcium because radioactive Strontium-90 is a fission byproduct that your body misidentifies as calcium and causes bone cancer.
Those who survive the nuclear attacks and radioactive fallout have biological weapons to contend with. The DPRK possesses the capability to deploy many agents: anthrax, botulism, cholera, Korean hemorrhagic fever, plague, smallpox, typhoid fever, yellow fever, dysentry, brucellosis, staph, typhus fever, alimentary toxic aleukia, and possibly ebola.
Anthrax bacterium( bacillus anthracis ) is one of the biological weapons that Korea possesses. Anthrax exists in two forms, live bacterium and spores. Live bacteria can be stored in a liquid. Live bacteria develop into spores that can remain dormant for thousands of years when the environmental conditions become hostile. Anthrax is weaponized in two ways, genetic modification to make it have a higher mortality once an individual is infected, and improving its transmissability by altering its physical characteristics. Genetic modification would strive to make the bacterium resistant to antibiotics, chemicals, heat, and cold. Anthrax's transmissibility is increased by developing the right size spores, around 10 nm, so that they get lodged in the alveoli of the lungs and coating the spores with silicon so that they don't clump together, which makes the very fine powder behave like a gas, penetrating nooks and crannies, anything that is not airtight. Weaponized anthrax can pass through paper, which happened with the envelopes during the 2001 anthrax attacks against liberal media and Democratic senators who were getting ready to vote on the Patriot Act during George Bush's Presidency. Anthrax can infect a person through the breathing in of spores, skin contact with live anthrax or spores, or ingesting live anthrax or spores. Anthrax infections are of three types: cutaneous, inhalation, and gastrointestinal. Anthrax produces a toxin, cleverly called "lethal toxin". Symptoms of anthrax infection include chest discomfort, cough, shortness of breath, fatigue, flu-like symptoms, small painless lesions that become black and necrotic, fever, vomiting of blood, bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain, compromised breathing due to lesions in the throat, mouth sores, inflammation of the intestinal tract, loss of appetite.
Smallpox virus( variola ) is another biological weapon that Korea possesses. Smallpox probably has been genetically engineered to defeat vaccines. Smallpox is spread by droplets in the air from coughing or sneezing, person to person contact, or by bodily fluids on surfaces. It can't remain alive in the environment indefinitely, however. People with smallpox develop pox, which look like pimples. These turn into scabs with time. Smallpox can be transmitted through scabs, and this is one of the crude pathways to weaponization. Several bodily fluids can be used to spread smallpox. The Soviet Union developed an aerosolized version of smallpox from infected chicken eggs requiring refrigerated warheads. This is probably how Korea does it. Symptoms of smallpox include back and muscle pain, fever, malaise, chills, rashes, bumps, blisters, scabs, scars, headache, and vomiting.
Plague( Yersinia Pestis bacterium ) is another biological weapon in Korea's arsenal. Plague, or Black Death, is spread by infected fleas, rat fleas or human fleas. Historically, Plague has been spread intentionally through rats and catapulting infected bodies over the walls of castles. The Japanese used Plague as a biological weapon during World War II by placing infected fleas in canisters of flour and dropping them on the enemy. Rats would eat the flour and catch the infected fleas. Modern weaponized plague is in the form of an aerosolized liquid containing the bacteria. Plague manifests in three forms, pneumonic, bubonic, and septicemic. The symptoms of plague include malaise, fatigue, body aches, sore throat, cough (possibly with blood), enlarged lymph nodes( buboes, hence bubonic plague), puss and bleeding of lymph nodes, blackish skin, headache, fever, stiff neck, seizures, confusion, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, blackened or tarry stool.
Ebola virus is another biological weapon that Korea probably possesses. They mentioned it by name in 2015 when they accused the US of creating it, which means they probably have it. Ebola virus causes hemorrhagic fever, bleeding from the eyes, ears, and other orifices, and has a very high mortality rate. It is spread through bodily fluids, usually from direct person to person contact. It can be contracted from droplets suspended in the air or from surfaces, but doesn't last long in the environment. Genetic engineering would strive to make it resistant to vaccines, chemicals, and the environment. The main problem with ebola is that it is very fragile. Aerosolizing it would probably damage the virus, and it wouldn't last long in the environment. It's possible that a genetically engineered virus could last longer in a liquid, but you would essentially have to get people to drink it. Ebola's strength is it's ability to spread because of its variable incubation time. Its incubation period varies from person to person, from 3 days to as long as three weeks. Any attack would probably involve secretly infecting large numbers of people in many cities. Symptoms of ebola infection include headache, fever, fatigue, sore throat, muscle pain, bleeding from eyes, ears, nose, and mouth, rash, diarrhea, vomiting, internal and external bleeding, impaired liver and kidney function.
The Soviet strategy for World War 3 was to attack the survivors with warheads containing several different kinds of biological agents. If a person is infected with multiple viruses and bacteria, several different remedies for each biological agent probably could not be administered at the same time. A cure for one disease could make another disease worse. Injections would have side effects. Several injections could kill. Animals would be infected as well, eliminating the food supply, causing starvation.
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